Basic Concepts Of Nutrition

In this article, I would like to talk about the basic concepts that can serve to have a basic idea of ​​both nutrition and training. since it is a pity that for not knowing the 4 basic concepts there are people who completely do not understand an article or a video or the reading is too complex for you.

Macronutrient

As its name indicates, it is the type of nutrients that our body needs in greater quantity and that supply most of the energy that the body needs. There are 3 types of macronutrients: Proteins, Lipids and Carbohydrates. The first two are essential, the last being optional since the body can function without them.

Micronutrient

They are the nutrients that the body needs in small doses but that perform vital functions in the body, therefore they must be implemented in the diet in adequate amounts. They are divided between vitamins and minerals.

Glycemia

The concentration of glucose in the blood. It moves in ranges of 70-110 mg / dL. Exceeding 110 we have a situation of hyperglycemia and below 70 we have hypoglycemia.

IG

Glycemic index. The GI is a measure that is used to determine the glycemic response of a food rich in CH with respect to a reference food. This reference food is usually 50 grams of white bread or glucose, to which a value of 100 is arbitrarily assigned. The problem with the GI is that the conditions for it to be applicable are not what we find in normality, so the GI is not a useful measure. The IG must be taken:

  • On an empty stomach
  • With the food in isolation, without other foods accompanying it.

Amino Acid

Organic molecules that come together to form proteins. There are 22 that are part of the protein, and only 9 of those are essential. Those that the body cannot synthesize and have to obtain through diet are essential.

  • The nine essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
  • Glutamine can become essential under certain circumstances.

BCAAS

Amino acids that contain an aliphatic group and that their structure is not linear, hence the name. In this group, we find 3 essential amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine.

Triglycerides

They are a group of lipids that are made up of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids. Those fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated.

Fatty Acids

They are molecules of lipidic nature that is formed by carbon and hydrogen atoms. At the end of the chain, there is a carboxyl group (-COOH)

Saturated Fatty Acids

They are linear and normally even-numbered fatty acids. The links between the carbons in its chain are simple, which is why it gives saturated fatty acids a particular stiffness and increases their melting point, making them solid at room temperature.

Monounsaturated Fatty Acids

These are fatty acids that only have one double bond in one carbon of their carbon chain. The carbon on which this double bond is located marks its nomenclature. For example, oleic acid has a double bond at carbon # 9, so it will be from the omega 9 series. They have less rigidity and a lower melting point, so they are liquid at room temperature.

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

They are fatty acids that have more than one double bond in their chain. The location of the first double bond marks the series to which they belong. For example, α-linolenic acid has the first double bond at position 3, so it will be from the Omega-3 series.

Essential Fatty Acids

AGEs are fatty acids that the body needs to perform certain functions but cannot synthesize them and must obtain them through diet. The only two AGs the body needs are α-linolenic acid (Omega-3) and linoleic acid (Omega-6)

Homeostasis

Balance situation of an organism that is maintained through internal changes of the same to adapt to external changes. For example, in the example of glycemia, the body will use various hormonal measures and responses such as insulin and glucagon to maintain a situation of homeostasis.

Calorie

A calorie is the heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of pure water 1ºC (from 14.5 to 15.5 ºC) to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. One calorie (lime) equals 4.1868 joules. One kilocalorie to 4.1868 kilojoules.

Also Read: 4 WAYS TO BURN CALORIES IN A HEALTHY WAY

Metabolism

Set of chemical reactions and physio-chemical processes that occur in a cell and in the body. Metabolism can be separated into anabolism and catabolism.

Anabolism

Set of metabolic processes that allow the synthesis of cellular components and the obtaining of more complex molecules from simpler ones. Anabolism requires energy. For example, building muscle mass is an anabolic process.

Catabolism

Unlike anabolism, catabolism is the set of metabolic processes that allow simpler molecules to be obtained from more complex ones and to release energy in the process. Fat loss is a catabolic reaction, for example.

BMI

They are the initials for Body Mass Index, and it is a measure of association between weight and height to determine body composition. It is achieved by dividing the weight by the height squared. Despite the fact that the BMI results are quite reliable in untrained people, it is completely useless in people who train regularly since the results are not applicable. It is not uncommon that according to BMI a defined person with good muscle quality comes out in the Obesity range.

Gluconeogenesis

It is a metabolic route that occurs mainly in the liver and consists of obtaining glucose through other precursors, such as amino acids, glycerol, or lactate.

Lipogenesis

It is the metabolic process by which triglycerides are obtained.

Proteolysis

The process by which proteins are degraded. It is usually through specific enzymes or through intracellular digestion.

ATP

The energy molecule of our body. It is made up of adenine (a nitrogenous base), a pentose (ribose), and 3 phosphate groups.

Basal Metabolism

Basal metabolism is the minimum amount of energy for an organism to function. Therefore it is the energy necessary to survive without doing absolutely anything other than essential metabolic functions. Basal metabolism varies according to body composition, age, sex, thyroid activity, etc …

TEF

The Thermal Effect of Food. TEF is the amount of energy the body needs to digest, metabolize, and absorb the food you eat. The TEF varies depending on the macronutrients, but in a balanced diet, it is usually 10% of the total caloric.

CNS

Central Nervous System. The Nervous System is the system in charge of governing the organized function of our devices, which captures external stimuli through receptors, translates them into electrical impulses that lead to the central nervous system (CNS), through a system of conductors ( nerves), and thus, the CNS produces a response sent by the nerves and made by other systems or tissues in response to the stimulus.

The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

Lipoproteins

They are macromolecular complexes made up of a union between lipids and proteins whose function is to transport fats throughout the body. Depending on their density, they will have a different composition and their function will be specific. There are 5 types of lipoproteins:

  • Chylomicrons
  • VLDL (Very Low-Density Lipoproteins)
  • IDL (intermediate density lipoproteins)
  • LDL (Low-Density Lipoproteins)
  • HDL (High-Density Lipoproteins)

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a lipid (a sterol) that is found in body tissues and in blood plasma. It has diverse and vital functions in the body, such as structural and is a precursor of many compounds such as Vitamin D, sex hormones, corticosteroids, bile salts, etc….

HDL

The considered “good cholesterol”. It is actually a high-density lipoprotein whose function is to transport cholesterol from the tissues to the liver. There are 4 HDL subclasses, which are beyond the scope of this article.

LDL

This is considered “bad cholesterol.” It is also a low-density lipoprotein that has 4 subclasses (which we will not see here either) and that its function is to transport cholesterol to the tissues. Let’s say that its function is the opposite of HDL.

Well, let’s leave this installment up to here. I think it is enough information for those of you who are a bit more lost and I do not want to overheat any serious.

Also Read: THE NEED TO CONSUME FIVE PIECES OF FRUIT A DAY

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